Personal StatementProfessor Kennedy is deeply committed to a pedagogical approach that supports and mentors students and faculty in the discovery of science and knowledge that is both meaningful and relevant to the populations that health care professionals serve. This pursuit is best served from engagement in a thoughtful and deliberate approach that is both mindful and supportive of leveraging our strengths and challenging our own self-limiting perspectives. Her work is informed by the theories of motivation and behavioral change.
Dr. Christine Kennedy – associate dean for academic programs for the School of Nursing since 2014 – brings a wealth of teaching, research and mentoring experience from her two decades at the University of California. An internationally known expert in pediatric nursing and children’s behavioral health, Dr. Kennedy’s research – which focuses on how illness, media and culture influence young children's health – has garnered more than $13 million in funding for a dozen studies, yielding more than 90 publications. And raised over $10 million in philanthropic gifts to the School.
Dr. Kennedy's research has spanned the globe, with a particular focus on the Pacific Rim countries; her research team is currently funded to study various aspects of health literacy and its role in clinical care and outcomes to reduce health disparities among underserved populations. At UVA, she is the Madeline Higginbotham Sly Professor of Nursing, a professor of pediatrics in the School of Medicine, and serves as the School of Nursing's chief academic officer as associate dean for academic programs.
Kennedy has received a host of professional awards, including Mentor of the Year, a Distinction in Teaching Award, a Distinguished Faculty Award, UCSF Alpha Eta Leadership Hall of Fame and the Chancellor’s Women in Health Leadership award along with the National Health Literacy Research Award from the Institute of Health Care Advancement. In 2017, Kennedy will be honored by nursing's honor society – Sigma Theta Tau International – with induction into its International Researcher Hall of Fame in Dublin, Ireland.
Dr. Kennedy earned undergraduate degrees from the University of Wisconsin (nutrition) and Catholic University (nursing), a master's degree as a pediatric NP from the Boston College, and a PhD in developmental child psychology from Brown. She has been a Fellow of the American Academy of Nursing since 2005 and is the past chair of its expert panel on health behavior.
Research FocusDr. Kennedy's program of research is focused on the impact of daily life activities on children’s development, specifically on the behavioral underpinnings to health in early childhood (3-8 years of age). She studies children’s developing health behaviors and health compromising behaviors exploring three areas of influence - media, culture/ethnicity, and illness. Her current program of research encompasses: development of children’s health behaviors and habits, interventions to change sedentary behaviors and increase healthy lifestyles in families, use of mobile phone strategies via a visual/pictorial app to facilitate physical activity in low health literacy populations in primary care settings. Funded work has occurred in the US and several international locations.
Clinical FocusPediatric Nurse Practitioner (APRN, BC) American Nurses Credentialing Center, 1994-2014. Pediatric primary care, particularly behavioral and developmental issues.
Teaching FocusPhD research seminars.
News and TV
- (8-11-17) "Sim Twins" help usher in new pediatrics tracks
- (6-19-17) SIF funding transforms research
- (5-12-16) NBC29 - UVA's NICU: Nurses, families share struggles and successes
- (7-13-15) Can something as simple as a colored bulb promote sleep in the hospital?
- (9-3-14) New grant to promote teamwork between docs, nurses in treating complex patients
- (4-4-14) Two UVA graduate nursing students named Jonas Scholars
- (11-20-13) Five Questions with Christine Kennedy, Sly Professor of Nursing and Associate Dean for Academic Programs
Letzkus, LC., Keim-Malpass, J., Conoway, M., Anderson, J., Kennedy, C. (2018). A retrospective analysis of paroxysmal sympathetic hyperactivity following severe pediatric brain injury. Journal of Pediatric Rehabilitation Medicine, 11(3), 153-160. doi: 10.3233/PRM-160428. doi:10.3233/PRM-160428
Keim-Malpass, J., Doede, A., Camacho, T. F., Kennedy, C., & Showalter, S. (2018). Impact of patient health literacy on surgical treatment of breast cancer. The Breast Journal, 24(4), 633-636. doi:10.1111/tbj.13011
Harmon, R. B., DeGennaro, R., Norling, M., Kennedy, C., & Fontaine, D. K. (2018). Implementing healthy work environment standards in an academic workplace: An update. Journal of Professional Nursing, 34(1), 20-24. doi:10.1016/j.profnurs.2017.06.001
Coyne, B. M., Kennedy, C., Self, A., & Bullock, L. (2018). A comprehensive approach to undergraduate nursing students' research experiences. Journal of Nursing Education, 57(1), 58-62. doi:10.3928/01484834-20180102-12
Keim-Malpass, J., Mitchell, E. M., Sun, E., & Kennedy, C. (2017). Using Twitter to understand public perceptions regarding the #HPV vaccine: Opportunities for public health nurses to engage in social marketing. Public Health Nursing, 34(4), 316-323. doi:10.1111/phn.12318
Letzkus, L. C., Keim-Malpass, J., Anderson, J., & Kennedy, C. (2017). Paroxysmal sympathetic hyperactivity in children: An exploratory evaluation of nursing interventions. Journal of Pediatric Nursing, 34, e17-21. doi:10.1016/j.pedn.2017.02.034
Keim-Malpass, J., Doede, A., Kennedy, C., & Showalter, S. L. (2017). Health literacy assessment: Feasibility in a breast surgical oncology clinic. Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing, 21(3), 384-386. doi:10.1188/17.CJON.384-386
Keim-Malpass, J., Mitchell, E. M., DeGuzman, P., Stoler, M., & Kennedy, C. (2017). Legislative activity related to the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine in the United States (2006-2015): A cry for evidence-based policy. Risk Management and Healthcare Policy, 10, 29-32. doi:10.2147/rmhp.s128247
Joiner, K., Janson, S., Kennedy, C., Yoshimi, F., Sternberg, R., & Chen, J. (2016). Perception of risk for developing diabetes among foreign-born Spanish-speaking U.S. Latinos. The Diabetes Educator, 42(4), 418-428. doi:10.1177/0145721716646204
Letzkus, L., Keim-Malpass, J., & Kennedy, C. (2016). Paroxysmal sympathetic hyperactivity: Autonomic Instability and muscle over-activity following severe brain injury. Brain Injury, 30(10), 1181-1185. doi:10.1080/02699052.2016.1184757
DeBattista, A. M., Huffman, L. C., Cooper, B., Alkon, A., Kennedy, C. M., & Weiss, S. J. (2016). Adaptive behavior trajectories in children born prematurely: The influence of biologic and social risk factors over the first few years of life. Annals of Pediatrics & Child Health, 4(2), 1101.
Keim-Malpass, J., Stegenga, K., Loudin, B., Kennedy, C., & Kools, S. (2016). "It's back! My remission is over”: Online communication of disease progression among adolescents with cancer. Journal of Pediatric Oncology Nursing, 33(3), 209-17. doi:10.1177/1043454215600424
Joiner, K., Janson, S., Sternberg, R., Kennedy, C. M., Fukuoka, Y. & Jyu-Lin, C. (2016). A Spanish-Language Risk Perception Survey for Developing Diabetes: Translation Process and Assessment of Psychometric Properties Journal of Nursing Measurement. Journal of Nursing Measurement, 00(0), 00-000.
Bender, M. S., Martinez, S., & Kennedy, C. (2016). Designing a culturally appropriate visually enhanced mobile low-text mobile health app promoting physical activity for Latinos: A qualitative study. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 27(4), 420-428. doi:10.1177/1043659614565249
Keim-Malpass, J., Letzkus, L.C., & Kennedy, C. (2015). Parental/Caregiver health literacy among children with special health care needs: A systematic review. BMC Pediatrics, 15(92), 1-10. doi:10.1186/s12887-015-0412-x
Keim-Malpass, J., Letzkus, L. C., & Kennedy, C. (2015). Health literacy and the Affordable Care Act: Implications for children with special health care needs. Risk Management and Healthcare Policy, 8, 31-36. doi:10.2147/RMHP.S80699
Malpass, J., Steeves, R. H., & Kennedy, C. (2014). Internet ethnography: A review of methodological considerations for studying online illness blogs. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 51(12), 1686-1692. doi:10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2014.06.003
Kanyamee, M., Fongkaew, W., Chotibang, J., Aree, P., & Kennedy, C. (2013). An intervention study of changing eating behaviors and reducing weight in Thai children aged 10-12. Pacific Rim International Journal of Nursing Research, 17(4), 317-328.
Thongbai, W., Fongkaew, W., Kennedy, C., Aree, P., & Putumanond, J. (2013). Risk factors for overweight among preschool children. Pacific Rim International Journal of Nursing Research, 12(1), 13-27.
Forsyth, S., Kennedy, C., & Malone, R. (2013). The effect of the internet on teen and young adult tobacco use: A literature review. Journal of Pediatric Health Care, 27(5), 367-376. doi:10.1016/j.pedhc.2012.02.008
Bender, M., Nader, P. R., Kennedy, C., & Gahagan, S. A. (2013). A culturally appropriate intervention to improve health behaviors in Hispanic mother-child dyads. Childhood Obesity, 9(2), 157-163. doi:10.1089/chi.2012.0118
Trompeta, J. A., Cooper, B. A., Ascher, N. L., Kools, S. M., Kennedy, C. M., & Chen, J. L. (2012). Asian American adolescents' willingness to donate organs and engage in family discussion about organ donation and transplantation. Progress in Transplantation, 22(1), 33-40, 70. doi:10.7182/pit2012328
Wilkosz, M. E., Chen, J. L., Kennedy, C.,& Rankin, S. (2011). Body dissatisfaction in California adolescents. Journal of the American Academy of Nurse Practitioners, 23(2), 101-109. doi:10.1111/j.1745-7599.2010.00586.x
Baggott, C. R., Dodd, M., Kennedy, C., Marina, N., Matthay, K. K., Cooper, B., & Miaskowski, C. (2011). An evaluation of the factors that affect the health-related quality of life of children following myelosuppressive chemotherapy. Support Care Cancer, 19(3), 353-61. doi:10.1007/s00520-010-0824-y
Wilkosz, M. E., Chen, J. L., Kennedy, C., & Rankin, S. (2010). Risk factors for decreased physical activity in White, Latino, and Asian adolescents in California. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 39(0), 152.
Ruth, V., Kennedy, C., Rehm, R., Ariagno, R., & Lee, K. A. (2010). Resting heart rate does not predict growth in preterm infants. Early Human Development, 86(1), 23-27. doi:10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2009.12.005
Wilkosz, M. E., Chen, J. L., Kennedy, C., & Rankin, S. (2010). Gender and ethnic disparities contributing to overweight in California adolescents. Journal of Public Health, 18(2), 131-144. doi:10.1007/s10389-009-0300-7
Baggott, C., Dodd, M., Kennedy, C., Marina, N., Matthay, K. K., Cooper, B. A., & Miaskowski, C. (2010). Changes in children's reports of symptom occurrence and severity during a course of myelosuppressive chemotherapy. Journal of Pediatric Oncology Nursing, 27(6), 307-15. doi:10.1177/1043454210377619
James, E. B., Harmatz, P., Lee, M., Kennedy, C., Petru, A., Wara, D., & Miaskowski, C. (2009). Altered iron metabolism in children with human immunodeficiency virus disease. Pediatric Hematology-Oncology, 26(2), 69-84. doi:10.1080/08880010902754826
Keeton, V. F., & Kennedy, C. (2009). Update on physical activity including special needs populations. Current Opinon in Pediatrics, 21(2), 262-268. doi:10.1097/MOP.0b013e3283292614
Baggott, C., Dodd, M., Kennedy, C., Marina, N., & Miaskowski, C. (2009). Multiple symptoms in pediatric oncology patients: a systematic review. J Pediatr Oncol Nurs, 26(6), 325-39. doi:10.1177/1043454209340324
Kennedy, C.,& Chen, J. L. (2009). Changes in childhood risk taking and safety behavior after a peer group media intervention. Nurs Res, 58(4), 264-73. doi:10.1097/NNR.0b013e3181ac12dd
Floriani, V. & Kennedy, C. (2008). Promotion of physical activity in children. Current Opinion in Pediatrics, 20(1), 90-95. doi:10.1097/MOP.0b013e3282f3d9f9
Kennedy, C., & Floriani, V. (2008). Translating research on healthy lifestyles for children: Meeting the needs of diverse populations. Nursing Clinics of North America, 43(3), 397-417. doi:10.1016/j.cnur.2008.04.001
Chen, J. L., Unnithan, V., Kennedy, C., & Yeh, C. H. (2008). Correlates of physical fitness and activity in Taiwanese children. International Nursing Review, 55(1), 81-88. doi:10.1111/j.1466-7657.2007.00588.x
Kools, S., Kennedy, C., Engler, M., & Engler, M. (2008). Pediatric hyperlipidemia: child and adolescent disease understandings and perceptions about dietary adherence. J Spec Pediatr Nurs, 13(3), 168-79. doi:10.1111/j.1744-6155.2008.00151.x
Chen, J. L., Wall, D., Kennedy, C, Unnithan, V., & Yeh, C. H. (2007). Predictors of increased body mass index in Chinese children. Progress in Cardiovascular Nursing, 22(3), 138-144. doi:10.1111/j.0889-7204.2007.05668.x
Floriani, V., & Kennedy, C. (2007). Promotion of physical activity in primary care for obesity treatment/prevention in children. Current Opinion in Pediatrics, 19(1), 99-103. doi:10.1097/MOP.0b013e328013c88c
Chen, J. L., Yeh, C.H., & Kennedy, C. (2007). Weight status, self-competence, and coping strategies in Chinese children. Journal of Pediatric Nursing, 22(3), 176-185. doi:10.1016/j.pedn.2006.08.003
Chen, J. L., Unnithan, V., & Kennedy, C. (2006). Comparing physical fitness and physical activity in Chinese children in Taiwan and the United States. Asian Journal of Nursing Science, 9(1), 17-25.
Chen, J. L., Kennedy, C., Yeh, C. H., & Kools, S. (2005). Risk factors for childhood obesity in elementary school-age Taiwanese children. Progress in Cardiovascular Nursing, 20(3), 96-103. doi:10.1111/j.0889-7204.2005.04456.x
Chen, J. L., & Kennedy, C. (2005). Cultural variations in children's coping behavior, TV viewing time, and family functioning. International Nursing Review, 52(3), 186-195. doi:10.1111/j.1466-7657.2005.00419.x
Kools, S., Kennedy, C., Kong, S. KF., Chen, J. L., Franck, L., & Wong, T. KS. (2004). Psychosocial functioning of hospitalized Chinese adolescents and their families. Journal of Pediatric Nursing, 19(2), 95-103. doi:10.1016/S0882-5963(03)00142-8
Franck, L. S., Kools, S., Kennedy, C., Kong, S. K F., Chen, J. L., & Wong, T. K S. (2004). The symptom experience of hospitalised Chinese children and adolescents and relationship to pre-hospital factors and behavior problems. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 41(6), 661-669. doi:10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2004.02.001
Chen, J. L., & Kennedy, C. (2004). Family functioning, parenting style and Chinese children’s weight status. Journal of Family Nursing, 10(2), 262-279. doi:10.1177/1074840704264021
Kennedy, C., Charlesworth, A., & Chen, J. L. (2004). Disaster at a distance: Impact of 9.11.01 televised news coverage on mothers' and children's health. Journal of Pediatric Nursing, 19(5), 329-339. doi:10.1016/j.pedn.2004.09.003
Butensky, E., Kennedy, C. M., Lee, M. M., Harmatz, P., & Miaskowski, C. (2004). Potential mechanisms for altered iron metabolism in human immunodeficiency virus disease. Journal of the Association of Nursing in AIDS Care, 15(6), 31-45. doi:10.1177/1055329004271125
Chen, J. L., & Kennedy, C. (2004). Factors associated with obesity in Chinese-American children. Pediatric Nursing, 31(2), 110-115.
Kennedy, C., Kools, S., Kong, S. K., Chen, J. L., Franck, L., & Wong, T. K. (2004). Behavioral, emotional and family functioning of hospitalized children in China and Hong Kong. Int Nurs Rev, 51(1), 34-46. doi:10.1111/j.1466-7657.2003.00204.x
Chen, J. L., Kennedy, C., Kools, S., Slaughter, R. E., Franck, L., Kong, S. KF., & Wong, T. KS. (2003). Culturally appropriate family assessment: analysis of the Family Assessment Device in a pediatric Chinese population. Journal of Nursing Measurement, 11(1), 41-60.
Kennedy, C., Charlesworth, A., & Chen, J. L. (2003). Interactive data collection: Benefits of integrating new media into pediatric research. Computers Informatics Nursing, 21(3), 120-127.
Jackson, P. L., Kennedy, C., & Slaughter, R. (2003). Employment characteristics of recent PNP graduates. Journal of Pediatric Health Care, 17(3), 133-139.
Koenig, K., Chesla, C. A., & Kennedy, C. M. (2003). Parents' perspectives of asthma crisis hospital management in infants and toddlers: an interpretive view through the lens of attachment theory. J Pediatr Nurs, 18(4), 233-43.
Kennedy, C. M., Strzempko, F., Danford, C., & Kools, S. (2002). Children's perceptions of TV and health behavior effects. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 34(3), 289-294.
Kools, S., & Kennedy, C. (2002). Child sexual abuse treatment: misinterpretation and mismanagement of child sexual behavior. Child Care Health and Development, 28(3), 211-218.
Kools, S., Kennedy, C. (2002). Foster child health and development: implications for primary care. Pediatric Nursing, 29(1), 44-46.
Chen, J. L., & Kennedy, C. M. (2001). Television viewing and children's health. Journal for Specialists in Pediatric Nursing, 6(1), 35-38.
Kennedy, C., Kools, S., & Krueger, R. (2001). Methodological considerations in children's focus groups. Nursing Research, 50(3), 184-187.
Jackson, P. L., Kennedy, C., Sadler, L. S., Kenney, K. M., Lindeke, L. L., Sperhac, A.M., & Hawkins-Walsh, E. (2001). Professional practice of pediatric nurse practitioners: Implications for education and training of PNPs. Journal of Pediatric Health Care, 15(6), 291-298.
Kennedy, C. (2000). Examining television as an influence on children's health behaviors. Journal of Pediatric Nursing, 15(5), 272-281.
Daley, H. K. & Kennedy, C. M. (2000). Meta analysis: Effects of interventions on premature infants feeding. The Journal of Perinatal & Neonatal Nursing, 14(3), 62-77.
Kennedy, C. M. (2000). Television and young Hispanic children's health behaviors. Pediatr Nurs, 26(3), 292-4.
Kennedy, C. M., & Rodriguez, D. A. (1999). Risk taking in young Hispanic children. Journal of Pediatric Health Care, 13(3), 126-135.
Kennedy, C. M. (1998). Childhood nutrition. Annual Review of Nursing Research, 16(1), 3-38.
Kennedy, C. M., & Lipsitt, L. P. (1998). Risk-taking in preschool children. Journal of Pediatric Nursing, 13(2), 77-84.
Kennedy, C. (1998). The unspoken voice: Children's behavioral response to illness. Asian Journal of Nursing Studies, 4(3), 24-33.
Kennedy, C. M. (1996). Are children's early emotions antecedents to risk taking? Journal of Pediatric Nursing, 22(6), 553-557, 567.
Kennedy, C., & Lipsitt, L. P. (1993). Temporal characteristics of non-oral feedings and chronic feeding problems in premature infants. Journal of Perinatal and Neonatal Nursing, 7(3), 77-89.
Kennedy-Caldwell, C. (1989). Pain in infancy. Journal of Neuroscience Nursing, 21(6), 386-388.
Kennedy-Caldwell, C. (1987). The morbidly obese surgical patient. Nutrition in the Critically Ill. Critical Care Nurse, 7(5), 87-89.
Kennedy-Caldwell, C. (1986). Specialized nutrition in critical care. Nutrition in the Critically Ill. Critical Care Nurse, 6(1), 70-71.
Kennedy-Caldwell, C. (1986). Clinical triads: Water metabolism, the NPO patient, and parenteral nutrition. Nutrition in the Critically Ill. Critical Care Nurse, 6(3), 63-64.
Crocker, K. S., Forlaw, L., Orr, M., Hennessy, K., Knox, L. S., Ryder, M., & Kennedy-Caldwell, C. (1985). Implications of industry moving into the field of home parenteral nutrition. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition, 9(5), 633-636.
Kennedy-Caldwell, C., & Hanson, M. E. (1983). Metabolism of vitamins and trace minerals. Nursing Clinics of North America, 18(1), 29-45.
Caldwell, M. D., & Kennedy-Caldwell, C. (1981). Normal nutritional requirements. In Surgical Nutrition. Surgical Clinics of North America, 61(3), 489-507.
Kennedy-Caldwell, C. (1981). Neonatal TPN. Hospital Physician, 18(11), 0-00.
Grant, J. A., & Kennedy-Caldwell, C. (Eds.) (1988). Nutritional support and nursing. Philadelphia, PA: Grune & Stratton.
Kennedy-Caldwell, C., & Guenter, P. (Eds.) (1988). Nutrition support nursing-core curriculum (2nd Ed.). Silver Spring, MD: ASPEN.
Kennedy-Caldwell, C. (Ed.). (1985). Nutrition support nursing-core curriculum. Silver Spring, MD: ASPEN.
Humphreys, J., Janson, S., Donesky, D., Drecup, K., Lee, L. A., Puntillo, K., Faucett, J., Aouizerat, B., Miaskowski, C., Baggott, C., Carrieri-Kohlman, V., Barger, M., Franck, L., & Kennedy, C. (The UCSF School of Nursing Symptom Management Faculty Group). (2014). A middle range theory of symptom management. In M. J. Smith & P. R. Liehr (Eds.), Middle range theory for nursing (3rd ed.) (pp. 141-164). New York: Springer Publishing Co.
Kennedy, C. & Floriani, V. (2010). Developmental assessment scales. In M. Craft-Rosenberg & S. Pehler (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Family Health (pp. 1). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications
Kennedy-Caldwell, C. (1990). Gastrointestinal disorders and therapeutic management. In L. A. Thelan, J. K. Davie, & L. D. Urden (Eds.), Textbook of critical care nursing - Diagnosis and management (pp. 0). St. Louis, MO: C. V. Mosby
Kennedy-Caldwell, C., & Bryant, R. (1990). Gastrointestinal assessment and diagnostic procedures. In L. D. Urden, J. K. Davie, & L. A. Thelan (Eds.), Essentials of critical care nursing (pp. 0). St. Louis, MO: C. V. Mosby.
Kennedy-Caldwell, C. (1990). Anatomy and physiology of the digestive system. In In L. A. Thelan, J. K. Davie, & L. D. Urden (Eds.), Textbook of critical care nursing - Diagnosis and management (pp. 0). St. Louis, MO: C. V. Mosby. [AJN Book of the Year Award]
Kennedy-Caldwell, C., & Bryant, R. (1990). Gastrointestinal disorders and therapeutic management. In L. D. Urden, J. K. Davie, & L. A. Thelan (Eds.), Essentials of critical care nursing (pp. 0). St. Louis, MO: C. V. Mosby
Kennedy-Caldwell, C. (1988). Pediatric nutrition and nursing. In C. Kennedy-Caldwell & J. A. Grant (Eds.), Nutritional support and nursing (pp. 00-000). Philadelphia, PA: Grune & Stratton
Kennedy-Caldwell, C. (1988). Substrate metabolism-vitamins. In C. Kennedy-Caldwell & J. A. Grant (Eds.), Nutritional support nursing core curriculum (pp. 00-000). Silver Spring, MD: ASPEN
Varella, L., & Kennedy-Caldwell, C. (1987). Nursing care and specialized nutritional support: The adult patient. In C. E. Lang (Ed.), Nutritional support in critical care (pp. ). Rockville, MD: ASPEN Systems Corp
Kennedy-Caldwell, C., & Caldwell, M. D. (1986). Developmental considerations in neonatal TPN. In J. Rombeau & M. Caldwell (Eds.), Clinical nutrition Vol. 2 Parenteral nutrition (pp. ). Philadelphia, PA: W. B. Saunders
Kennedy-Caldwell, C. (1985). Vitamin metabolism. In C. Kennedy-Caldwell (Ed.), Nutrition support nursing-core curriculum (pp. 96-121). Silver Spring, MD: ASPEN
Kennedy-Caldwell, C., & Caldwell, M. (1984). Pediatric Enteral nutrition. In J. Rombeau & M. Caldwell (Eds.), Clinical nutrition. Vol. 1 Enteral and tube feeding (pp. ). Philadelphia, PA: W. B. Saunders
Caldwell, M., & Kennedy-Caldwell, C. (1984). Micronutrients and Enteral nutrition. In J. Rombeau & M. Caldwell (Eds.), Clinical nutrition. Vol. 1 Enteral and tube feeding (pp. ). Philadelphia, PA: W. B. Saunders